Some advice before you begin the investigation of the authenticity or attribution of an Old Master work of art.


 The definition of an old master painting is one coming from the hand of a great artist of former times. By that definition, specifically, one of those great artists originating from Europe from the 12th to the 18th century.


 This is exactly why Freemanart are sited perfectly, here in Europe to help and you. Specialising in conducting all the requisite in depth archival research and investigative, academic and forensic analysis for clients from our bases throughout Europe and the UK.   With full time research specialists in Italy.


 But before entering into a full investigation of the legitimacy, attribution or authorship of any old master work of art, be it academically structured, a full forensic analysis and investigation, or as with most serious cases, both, it is essential to learn if the project is viable and more importantly, possible to prove.

It is much the same as you would need to know if you were taking a legal case to court.

Logically, if  it is not  viable, you would be better placed not to attempt it as the risk of failure is too high.

 So with that in mind, we prefer to make a preliminary and vital professional pre authentication assessment for clients first.
This is a professional study and advisory service based upon the images you supply and the details and the items history and provenance. It is conducted to determine both the investigative requirements necessary and the risks involved.

A logical & cost effective professional assessment and advisory for which there is a modest set fee.


Please see our FAQ's which explains this process in detail.





Freemanart  Consultancy






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  When we refer to the attribution or authentication of an Old Master in general terms, we mean paintings and drawings which were created by any one of the world's leading and most influential European artists or their workshops or studios.

Artists who are regarded to be maestros of great quality and ability.

These are usually artists who lived and worked sometime between the 12th to the early 18th century, t
hough clearly many other great master craftsmen also qualify by definition. Artists who followed later and are deemed to be 'Modern Masters', such as the Impressionists and Cubists.

 There are a huge number of artists of this calibre from the early years of Medieval and Renaissance art history and although the subject matter they chose may be similar in many ways, portraiture, landscape, the Holy Family and Allegorical and Biblical scenes, their country of origin, region and therefore individual style often does vary dramatically.


 Freemanart specialise in international fine art authentication and attribution investigations, and have extensive access to closed archives throughout Europe. We are privileged to have investigated hundreds of Old Master works of art, all over the world.

Researching their attribution and provenance for clients, discovering records, assisting with delicate repatriation issues, or identifying deliberate fakes and art fraud and illegitimate works of art is our forte and privilege.













Images Courtesy Jackie Freeman

Cornwall - England.

Old Master Painting Authentication

Italian  - French - German - Spanish, Flemish, Dutch & English


Investigations and authentication projects of the world's principal old master artists and their studios by Freemanart.


rembrandt van Rijn art authentication experts











Giotto di Bondone (Italian, 1267–1337)
Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452–1519)
Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528)
Michelangelo (Italian, 1475–1564)
Titian (Italian, c.1477–1576)
Sandro Botticelli (Italian, 1445–1510)
Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520)
Hans Holbein the Younger (German, 1497–1543)
Jacopo Tintoretto (Italian, 1518–1594)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
(Flemish, c.1525–1569)
Paolo Veronese (Italian, c.1528–1588)
El Greco (Greek-born Spanish, 1541–1614)
Frans Hals (Dutch, 1580–1666)
Caravaggio (Italian, 1573–1610)
Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577–1640)
Nicolas Poussin (French, 1594–1665)
Diego Velázquez (Spanish, 1599–1660)
Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Johannes Vermeer (Dutch, 1632–1675)
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italian, 1691–1770)
Joshua Reynolds (English, 1723–1792)
Francisco Goya (Spanish, 1746–1828

Nicolas Regnieri


 Many of the old master paintings we have investigated turn out to be wrongly attributed to a particular old master. As in the case of the Self Portrait on the left which is not by the Flemish Old Master - Rembrandt van Rijn, but simply a 'copy' of an unfinished self portrait originally painted by Rembrandt in about 1659.

However, it was presented for sale as an original.

< Though Rembrandt painted many self portraits in his lifetime, scholars believe over 50, he did not repeat any of them. Nor paint this one below which was discovered in South America.


Rembrandt art authentication experts


 Though dramatically imitating the style of Rembrandt, the Portrait of a wealthy man (above) and seen under ultra violet light showing earlier repairs and damaged areas, was created later by about fifty years, as forensic investigation and analysis of the pigment and canvas verified.








Bernardo Strozzi art authentication experts

Freemanart's Executive Director David Freeman examines an old master painting, "The release of Saint Peter" by Bernardo Strozzi at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Australia











Peter Phillip Roos olod master art authentication experts

Peter Phillip Roos

Italian Old Master art authentication experts

The Holy Family and St John the Baptist

Raffael old master art authentication experts

The design of the painting resembles Raffaello Sanzio painting Madonna  Della Tenda




 As fine art consultants, Freemanart have undertaken many major investigations into works of art over the years, including compicated issues of legitimacy, misattribution, reattribution and  general art attribution research.
Naturally our studies include both the modernists and the impressionist schools which are covered elsewhere, however, there have been many important works by  fine Italian, Flemish, French, Spanish and German Old Masters, their pupils, studios and circles.

Our catalogue of completed projects forms an extensive and impressive list:

Included in that lisdt are serious works of art executed by highly regarded individual artists of the Venetian and Neopolitan schools, alongside Florentine, Genoise and Veronese masters of the Italian school. Other authentication investigations conducted by Freemanart include those conducted into the legitimacy of oil paintings believed to be by or previously attributed to, the following old masters.

(In no particular order and by prior attributed claim)


A full list of our authentication investigations can be found Here:








Old master drawing art authentication experts

St. Jerome beneath a tree


Forensic art authentication experts





< This is an old master drawing on paper, claiming to be by Nicolas Poussin (French 1594-1665) 

It is a pen and ink drawing executed in sepia heightened in white. This supposedly 'old master' pen and ink drawing is drawn on paper and pasted to board measuring 8 ½ x 10 " Depicting according to the inscription: 

"St. Jerome beneath a tree within a rural landscape with bridge beyond. "

However, the paper on which this piece is executed was no older than about 1840.

That's some 200 years after the artist was working. So this drawing could never have been executed by Nicolas Poussin.

< We also discovered a further inscription which we were able to image enhance when we the drawing was removed from its backing board.

Forensics examination showed, the pen nib which created these marks is identical to the marks made by the the nib of the pen which created the drawing itself! 

Note also that the date is 1853.

200 years out.





Freemanart  have experts and specialist investigators who specialise in Italian old master authentication, German old master authentication , Flemish old master authentication, Dutch old master authentication, Spanish old master authentication, English old master authentication, Belgian old master authentication and French old master authentication.








Freemanart:  Expert  in the  Fine  Art of  Authentication.



 The Freemanart Consultancy specialise in forensic and academic art authentication procedures and have experts who are specialists in Italian, Spanish, French, Flemish, German, Dutch and British Old Master artists, including their studios, contempiraries and their works of art.

 We are specifically here to assist you with both valuations of Old Master works and Old Master authentication and attribution issues from our offices, laboratories and bases in Italy, France, Spain, Germany, North America and England.


For further details on ART Authentication and Attribution Investigations

Click Here


To Contact Freemanart directly Click Here:








Old master painting art authentication experts




 Thomas Gainsborough art authentication experts                                                                    Flemish old master art authentication experts



Art authentication is not about guesswork and certainly not about wishful opinion.

It is a world where there is little or no room for conjecture, hypothesis, assumption, supposition and is entirely about reality.



 Most normal human beings are naturally guided here by a dream. A dream that what they have,  may just be something special after all.

They are beguiled by that magical possibility. A possibility that what they believe to be true, what they have been told is true or what they want to believe is true, is actually true!

But do remember, with authentication, that dream has to be absolutely proven. Just like a case placed before a court of law.

 In court, any case must be proven and adjudged convincingly, ie; without a shadow of doubt and proven in many different ways; academically, forensically and in reality. All of this has to be achievable before the the work can be pronounced absolutely authentic.



 Before you get into the procedures minefield which can evolve with art authentication, a field which may be both financially and emotionally taxing, it is more than wise to be realistic about the issue and have an independent 'preliminary assessment' conducted first.


 Such a pre authentication assessment, is a professional assessment of viability which is based entirely independently upon reality. It balances the viability of your work of art and its background and assesses the possibility based on our past experiences, that the case may be realistically followed through and eventually possibly be proven.

The advice you get will be invaluable and based upon the simple questions; Is there any reality at all in the possibility that the work of art could be authentic?  Can we diminish the risks and do we have any serious chance achieving our objective?


If a project is literally not achievable and not provable, surely it would be sensible to know that from the start!


 A primart assessment then allows the client to make a wiser, more considered decision and apply a greater degree of sensibility in taking the leap into a staged, full blown authentication forensic and academic archival and comparative study analysis and investigation.


It makes a great deal of sense.


CONTACT US for that advice.


William-Adolphe Bouguereau  ART AUTHENTICATION EXPERTS










Specialist Expertise by Artist




1871-1884 | 1885- 1888 1889 - 1890 | 1891 - 1893 | 1894 - 1896 | 1897 - 1899 | 1900 - 1903
















Henri Goltzius

Durer Bruegel

French and Spanish school
Nicolas Poussin

Wssel de Guimbarda

Daniel Vázquez Díaz

Marqués Jusepe de Ribera

Vicente Camarón Torra

Sebastián Muñoz

Juan de Valdes Leal

Andrea Schiavone

School and circle of Rembrandt

Hans Holbein the Elder

Marten van Heemskerk

French and Spanish school
Nicolas Poussin

Claude Gelee, called CLAUDE LORRAIN

Pierre Parrocel

Charles Natoire

Etienne Allegrain

Jean-Baptiste Greuze

Nicholas-Bernard Lepice

Ricardo Verdugo Landi


Mariano Salvador Maell

Joseph Maria Subirachs

Wssel de Guimbarda

Daniel Vázquez Díaz

Francisco Domingo

Marqués Jusepe de Ribera

Vicente Camarón Torra

Sebastián Muñoz

Juan de Valdes Leal


Van der Helst  Bart  1613-1670 Dutch


Giotto di Bondone Authentication,

Leonardo da Vinci Authentication

Albrecht Dürer Authentication

Michelangelo Authentication

Titian Authentication

Sandro Botticelli Authentication

Raphael Authentication

Hans Holbein the Younger Authentication

Jacopo Tintoretto Authentication

Pieter Bruegel the Elder Authentication

Paolo Veronese Authentication

El Greco Authentication

Frans Hals Authentication

Caravaggio Authentication

Peter Paul Rubens Authentication

Nicolas Poussin Authentication

Diego Velázquez Authentication

Rembrandt van Rijn Authentication

Johannes Vermeer Authentication

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Authentication

Joshua Reynolds Authentication

Francisco Goya Authentication





























On this page: Authentication of old master paintings , drawings & prints

Old master painting authentication

 La vieille authentification de tableau de maître Alte Meistergemäldebeglaubigung Autenticação de pintura de grande mestre 

Autenticación vieja de pintura de maestro


Old Master Art Authentication | Old master Drawing Attribution, Authenticate old master oil painting, artist attribution | Italian school, French, German, Italian, Flemish, English, Dutch, masterpiece.

Old Master Art Authentication: Professional help and advice with Authenticating Old Master Paintings, Authenticating Old Master Drawings and Prints. Expert Professional Authentication Investigations.

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La vieille authentification de tableau de maître Alte Meister gemäldebeglaubigung Autenticação de pintura de grande mestre 
Autenticación vieja de pintura de maestro


ABOUT: Old master art and painting authentication investigators.  ,Old master art attribution research, attribution investigation, old master authenticity researchers, professional art authentication services, authenticators of art, old master drawing authentication, old master painting authentication, analysisof art, dating paintings, paper dating, pigment and paint analysis  plus Old master art authentication services, old master painting authentication, old master signature authentication Italian old master authentication.